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Introduction : Le Maroc a fait des progrès significatifs dans la mise en œuvre de sa Strat gie Nationale d'Inclusion Financière (SNIF) en 2022, malgr les d fis conomiques. Cette strat gie se concentre sur plusieurs domaines cl s tels que les paiements mobiles, la microfinance, l'assurance inclusive et l'infrastructure de cr dit. Le pays continue de faire de l'inclusion financière une priorit en tant que moteur cl du d veloppement conomique et social, avec le gouvernement, la banque centrale et d'autres parties prenantes collaborant pour relever les d fis restants. Voici un r sum des principaux axes de la SNIF : 1. Microfinance : - Après l'adoption de la loi n°50-20 en juillet 2021, les travaux d' laboration des textes d'application et du cadre prudentiel relatifs à la microfinance se sont poursuivis tout au long de l'ann e 2022. - Des mesures sp cifiques ont t entreprises en faveur de l'InsurTech, avec l' laboration d'une feuille de route pour la promotion de la digitalisation au sein du secteur de l'assurance. 2. Assurance Inclusive: - L'amendement de la circulaire g n rale de l'ACAPS a permis d' tendre le p rimètre de distribution des produits d'assurance aux tablissements de paiement, dans le but d' largir l'accès aux services d'assurance. - Des tudes ont t men es pour mieux comprendre les besoins en assurance des micro et petites entreprises, soulignant l'importance de solutions financières innovantes et inclusives. 3. Offres Bancaires : - Des efforts ont t d ploy s par les tablissements bancaires pour largir l'inclusion financière des particuliers et des très petites et moyennes entreprises (TPME). - Une mission de revue de la feuille de route des offres bancaires a t lanc e afin d'ajuster les priorit s compte tenu de l' volution du contexte et de l' ch ance de la première phase de la strat gie. 4. Outils d'aide au financement des TPE et Start-ups : - Les discussions se sont poursuivies entre Bank Al-Maghrib, le Ministère des Finances et le Secr tariat G n ral du Gouvernement (SGG) pour faire aboutir le projet de loi sur les Bureaux d'Information sur le Cr dit (BIC). - Des efforts ont galement t d ploy s pour d velopper des m canismes de financement suppl mentaires pour les TPE, notamment le crowdfunding, les fonds de dettes et les OPCC. 5. Comit de Pilotage et de Coordination (CPC) : - Le CPC a tenu des r unions de coordination sp cifiques en 2022 pour suivre l'avancement des travaux, notamment sur les leviers "Offres Bancaires" et "Éducation Financière". - Une approche participative et progressive a t approuv e par le Comit de Suivi pour le d veloppement des programmes d' ducation financière, impliquant les diff rentes parties prenantes. 6. Participation aux v nements internationaux : - L'exp rience marocaine en matière de Strat gie Nationale d'Inclusion Financière a t mise en avant lors de plusieurs v nements internationaux en 2022. - Bank Al-Maghrib a notamment partag les r alisations de la strat gie et les enseignements tir s lors de ces v nements. 7. B n ficiaires des programmes d' ducation financière : - En 2022, les efforts constants des parties prenantes ont permis d'atteindre 27 080 b n ficiaires directs de formation, dont 66% de femmes, 31% de jeunes de 15 à 24 ans et 27% de personnes en milieu rural. 8. Outils de pilotage de la strat gie : - Bank Al-Maghrib a multipli ses efforts pour assurer une valuation fiable des diff rentes dimensions de l'inclusion financière, notamment à travers la mise en place d'un Système de Cartographie de l'Inclusion Financière (SCIF). - Ce projet vise à concevoir un outil de r f rence nationale en termes de donn es sur l'inclusion financière, en consolidant les indicateurs côt offre et demande ainsi que les donn es sociod mographiques. Lien vers le Rapport: https://www.bkam.ma/content/download/804298/8866311/Rapport%20SNIF%202022%20V%2003042024.pdf

by Youness El Kandoussi | 1 month ago | 0 Comment(s) | 11 Share(s) | Tags :


La gestion du risque op rationnel dans les banques marocaines : vers une standardisation des approches de gestion Le risque op rationnel est d fini par le Comit de Bâle comme « le risque de pertes r sultant de processus internes inad quats ou d faillants, de personnes et systèmes, ou d’ v nements externes» https://www.ir-bankofafrica.ma/sites/default/files/2020-08/Organisation%20de%20la%20gestion%20des%20risques%20-%202019.pdf. Il englobe ainsi les risques li s à la fraude, aux erreurs humaines, aux d faillances techniques, aux catastrophes naturelles, aux changements r glementaires, etc. Le risque op rationnel est consid r comme l'un des principaux risques auxquels sont expos es les banques, et sa gestion est devenue un enjeu strat gique pour la stabilit financière et la rentabilit des tablissements bancaires. Au Maroc, le secteur bancaire a connu ces dernières ann es une volution importante, marqu e par la diversification des activit s, l'innovation technologique, l'internationalisation et la concurrence accrue. Ces facteurs ont augment la complexit et la vuln rabilit des banques face au risque op rationnel. Ainsi, les banques marocaines ont dû renforcer leur dispositif de gestion des risques op rationnels, en se conformant aux normes internationales et aux exigences du r gulateur national, Bank Al-Maghrib. Selon une tude men e par Chemlal et al. (2020) http://revue-rimms.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/ARTICLE-7-ASMAE-MRABET-2.pdf, les banques marocaines cot es en bourse ont adopt une approche globale et int gr e de la gestion des risques op rationnels, bas e sur les tapes suivantes : L'identification des risques op rationnels à travers l'analyse des processus m tiers, des incidents pass s et des sc narios potentiels. L' valuation des risques op rationnels à l'aide d'indicateurs quantitatifs (pertes effectives, pertes attendues, capital conomique) et qualitatifs (cartographie des risques, auto- valuation des risques). La maîtrise des risques op rationnels par la mise en place de mesures pr ventives (contrôles internes, proc dures, formation) et correctives (plans d'action, assurance, transfert). Le suivi des risques op rationnels par le reporting r gulier des indicateurs de risque, l'audit interne et externe, et le contrôle permanent. La gouvernance des risques op rationnels par l'implication du conseil d'administration, du comit de direction g n rale, du comit de pilotage et gestion des risques, et de la direction g n rale en charge des risques groupe. L' tude a galement montr que la gestion des risques op rationnels a un impact positif sur la performance financière des banques marocaines cot es en bourse. En effet, les auteurs ont trouv une corr lation significative entre les indicateurs de performance financière (produit net bancaire, r sultat net d'exploitation, coefficient d'exploitation, rentabilit des capitaux propres et rentabilit des actifs) et les variables li es à la gestion des risques op rationnels (capital r glementaire allou au risque op rationnel, nombre d'incidents d clar s, nombre de contrôles effectu s). Par ailleurs, une autre tude r alis e par El Khattabi (2018) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371304923_La_gestion_du_risque_operationnel_au_sein_des_banques_marocaines_vers_une_standardisation_des_approches_de_gestion a analys les pratiques de gestion du risque op rationnel au sein de six banques marocaines (Attijariwafa Bank, BMCE Bank of Africa, Banque Centrale Populaire, Cr dit Agricole du Maroc, Cr dit du Maroc et Soci t G n rale Maroc). L'auteur a constat que les banques marocaines ont adopt des approches de gestion du risque op rationnel similaires, bas es sur les recommandations du Comit de Bâle et les directives de Bank Al-Maghrib. Il a galement relev que les banques marocaines utilisent principalement l'approche standardis e pour calculer le capital r glementaire requis pour couvrir le risque op rationnel. Cette approche consiste à appliquer un coefficient fixe aux produits nets bancaires par ligne d'activit . L'auteur a soulign que cette approche pr sente des limites, car elle ne reflète pas la r alit du risque op rationnel et ne tient pas compte de la diversit des profils de risque des banques. Il a donc sugg r que les banques marocaines voluent vers des approches plus avanc es, bas es sur des modèles internes qui prennent en compte les sp cificit s de chaque banque. En conclusion, on peut dire que la gestion du risque op rationnel dans les banques marocaines a connu une am lioration significative, grâce à la mise en place d'un dispositif de gestion global et int gr , conforme aux normes internationales et aux exigences du r gulateur national. Cette gestion a permis aux banques marocaines de renforcer leur r silience face aux v nements impr vus, et d'am liorer leur performance financière. Toutefois, il reste encore des marges de progression, notamment en matière de calcul du capital r glementaire, qui pourrait être affin par l'utilisation d'approches plus avanc es et adapt es à chaque banque. Quel est le niveau d'exposition aux de Risques Op rationnels des Banques Marocaine Il n'existe pas de classement officiel des banques marocaines selon leur niveau de risque op rationnel. Toutefois, on peut essayer d'appr cier ce risque à partir de certains indicateurs financiers, tels que le capital r glementaire allou au risque op rationnel, le nombre d'incidents d clar s, le nombre de contrôles effectu s, ou encore le ratio de couverture du risque op rationnel. Selon les donn es publi es par Bank Al-Maghrib https://www.bkam.ma/A-propos/Gouvernance/Gestion-des-risques-et-continuite-d-activites, le capital r glementaire allou au risque op rationnel par les banques marocaines s' levait à 13,9 milliards de dirhams à fin 2020, soit 11,6% du capital r glementaire total. Ce montant varie selon les banques, en fonction de leur taille, de leur activit et de la m thode de calcul utilis e. Les banques marocaines utilisent principalement l'approche standardis e, qui consiste à appliquer un coefficient fixe aux produits nets bancaires par ligne d'activit . Selon les rapports annuels des banques marocaines cot es en bourse https://www.bkam.ma/Stabilite-financiere/Cadre-analytique/Cartographie-des-risques-systemiques, le capital r glementaire allou au risque op rationnel se r partissait comme suit en 2020 : Attijariwafa Bank : 4,3 milliards de dirhams, soit 12,5% du capital r glementaire total. BMCE Bank of Africa : 2,8 milliards de dirhams, soit 10,9% du capital r glementaire total. Banque Centrale Populaire : 2,6 milliards de dirhams, soit 10,7% du capital r glementaire total. Cr dit du Maroc : 1 milliard de dirhams, soit 14% du capital r glementaire total. Soci t G n rale Marocaine de Banques : 0,9 milliard de dirhams, soit 9% du capital r glementaire total. Cr dit Agricole du Maroc : 0,8 milliard de dirhams, soit 9,4% du capital r glementaire total. Ces chiffres ne reflètent pas n cessairement le niveau r el du risque op rationnel dans chaque banque, car ils d pendent aussi des produits nets bancaires et des coefficients appliqu s. Il faudrait donc les compl ter par d'autres indicateurs qualitatifs, tels que le nombre et la nature des incidents d clar s, le nombre et la fr quence des contrôles effectu s, ou encore le ratio de couverture du risque op rationnel. Ce ratio mesure la capacit d'une banque à absorber les pertes li es au risque op rationnel à partir de ses fonds propres. Il se calcule en divisant les fonds propres par le capital r glementaire allou au risque op rationnel. Malheureusement, ces indicateurs ne sont pas toujours disponibles ou comparables entre les banques. Il faudrait donc se r f rer aux rapports d'audit interne et externe, aux rapports du r gulateur ou aux tudes sp cialis es pour avoir une vision plus pr cise du risque op rationnel dans les banques marocaines. R f rences : https://www.ir-bankofafrica.ma/sites/default/files/2020-08/Organisation%20de%20la%20gestion%20des%20risques%20-%202019.pdf: Comit de Bâle sur le contrôle bancaire (2006). Principes fondamentaux pour un contrôle bancaire efficace. [1] http://revue-rimms.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/ARTICLE-7-ASMAE-MRABET-2.pdf: Chemlal, M., Benazzou, L., Mrabet, A., & Gharib, B. (2020). L’impact de la gestion des risques op rationnels sur la performance financière des banques marocaines cot es en bourse. Revue Internationale du Marketing et Management Strat gique (RIMMS), 1(2), 101-120. [2] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371304923_La_gestion_du_risque_operationnel_au_sein_des_banques_marocaines_vers_une_standardisation_des_approches_de_gestion: El Khattabi, A. (2018). La gestion du risque op rationnel au sein des banques marocaines : vers une standardisation des approches de gestion. Thèse de doctorat, Universit Mohammed V de Rabat. [3]

by Youness El Kandoussi | 8 months ago | 0 Comment(s) | 178 Share(s) | Tags :


Contents 1 Abstract.. 4 2 Introduction.. 4 3 Objective: 5 4 Plan of the paper: 5 5 Chapter 1: Risk History and definitions. 5 5.1 Introduction: 5 5.2 Section I: Risk Management History: 6 5.3 Section 2: Definitions of Risk Management: 7 5.3.1 Market Risk: 8 5.3.2 Credit Risk. 8 5.3.3 Liquidity Risk: 8 5.3.4 Operational Risk: 9 6 Chapter 2: Evolvement of Risk Management: Basel I, II and III. 10 6.1 Introduction: 10 6.2 Section I: Basel I and its shortcomings: 11 6.3 Section 2: Basel II 12 6.4 Section 3: Basel III 13 6.4.1 Summary OF changes. 13 7 Chapter 3: Risk in Islamic Finance Institutions. 14 7.1 Introduction: 14 7.2 Section 1: Islamic Finance Institutions are unique. 16 7.3 Section 2: Types of Risks in the IFIs: 17 8 Chapter 4: Islamic Finance Products, Risks and the key challenges. 19 8.1 Introduction: 19 8.2 Section 1: Risks in Islamic Finance Products: 19 8.2.1 Risks in Musharakah Contracts: 21 8.2.2 Risks in Mudarabah contract: 22 8.2.3 Risks in Murabahah Contract: 24 8.2.4 Risks in Salam Contract: 24 8.2.5 Risks in Istisnaa Contract 25 8.2.6 Risks in Iajrah Contract: 26 8.3 Section 2: Challenges of Risk Management in Islamic Finance Products. 27 9 Chapter 5: Operational Risk in Islamic Finance Institutions. 28 9.1 Introduction: 28 9.2 Section 1: Operational Risk in Musharakah contract: 28 9.3 Section 2: Operational Risk in Mudarabah contract. 29 9.4 Section 3: Operational Risk in Murabahah contract. 29 9.5 Operational Risk in Salam contract. 30 9.6 Operational Risk in Istisnaa contract: 30 9.7 Operational Risk in Ijarah contract: 30 10 Conclusion.. 30 10.1 Findings. 30 10.2 Recommendations. 31 11 References. 33 1 Abstract As IFIs are growing extensively and expected to grow up to 15% in the coming years, it is primordial that all the industry stakeholders start to invest their efforts to develop the Risk Management disciplines. The IFSB and AAOIFI are not sparing any effort to guide and participate in shaping the IF Risk Management, however, they tend to be inspired by the existing frameworks historically developed for Conventional Banks. Islamic Finance contracts are very different in nature and in substance from conventional banks, thus, the conventional Risk Management cannot cater for their uniqueness. This paper tried to highlight uniqueness of risk aspects within the IF contracts, and focused on Operational Risk, which is in my opinion in the major risk for IFI. 2 Introduction Risk Management have evolved since its first appearance after the World War II. The Bank of International Settlement have tried to adapt to the changes in the Finance industry and issued 3 version of the Basel Guidelines on Capital Requirements (Basel I, II and III). These guidelines have identified Capital Requirements for Credit Risk, Market Risk and Operational Risk. They also issued Sound Practices for Risk Management for each type of Risk. With the venue of the Islamic Finance Industry in the 1960s, Risk Management tools had to adapt to the uniqueness of their products. IFSB and AOIIFI have invested huge efforts in developing Risk Management guidelines for IFIs. Scholars and Islamic Finance practitioners issued multitude of papers attempting to circle aspects of Risk in the Islamic Finance Contracts. They have demonstrated that Islamic Finance encompasses other types of Risk that are unknown to conventional Banks (Fiduciary Risk, Sharia non-compliance Risk, Commercial Displaced Risk, etc.) Many of those scholars have also found out that the IFIs are more exposed to Operational Risk than the conventional banks, mainly due to the complexity of the contracts and their execution. This research is an attempt to add some more light on Risks faced by Islamic Finance Institution with a special focus on Operational Risk. 3 Objective: Risk Management in IFIs tends to be complex and least understood by the business and even by the Risk Management practitioners, in this research I will attempt to define Risks in IFIs and clarify its specifications by demonstrating its uniqueness, especially in the Islamic Finance contracts, where each contract can encompass more than one type of Risk. I will also try to cover some more details of Operational Risk aspects in the IF contracts and demonstrate its importance and complexity during the lifecycle. That being discussed I will propose some actions that can enhance the Operational Risk Management within the IFIs. 4 Plan of the paper: In this paper, I will be defining Risk Management in general in Financial Institutions and its degree of evolvement especially in conventional banking, how Risk is different in Islamic Financial Institutions from conventional banks, their instruments and what are the key challenges. Then I will be discussing the Operational Risk Management in Islamic Finance Institutions and its specifications. 5 Chapter 1: Risk History and definitions 5.1 Introduction: Risk Management emerged after the World War II, and began to be studied in universities as a discipline with the two academic books ( Mehr and Hedges (1963) and Williams and Hems (1964)[1]. Risk Management was, for a long time, the ultimate tool for Insurance Industry aiming to mitigate Risks related to individuals and companies from losses incurred from accidents[2] After 1950s, and due to the increasing costs of insurance, various Risk Management activities were introduced to the business (e.g. business continuity, self-insurance). Derivatives were introduced after 1970s to mitigate the faced risks. Market, Credit, and Operational Risk Management tools were introduced to manage the emerging risks from the intensified activities with insurance and Finance industries (consequently after 1980s for Market and Credit and 1990s for Operational Risk)[3] The objective of a financial institution (or for any kind of business) is to maximize shareholders’ profits by adding value and best usage of available resources. Financial institutions, in particular, have to manage Risks to achieve the aforesaid objective. Risk is defined as a possible adverse, one or more, outcomes, it is unknown for its intrinsic volatility and unpredictability. Financial institutions face different types of Risks. Business Risks, which “arises from the nature of a firm’s business. It relates to factors affecting the product market. Financial risk arises from possible losses in financial markets due to movements in financial variables [4]”. Oldfield and Santomero classifies Risk in three types: risks that can be eliminated, those that can be transferred to others, and the risks that can be managed by the institution. [5]” Besides the above given definitions, Risk can also be defined as Financial Risk, i.e. Credit Risk and Market Risk, and non-Financial Risk, i.e., among others, Operational Risk, Legal Risk, Reputational Risk and Strategic Risk.[6] 5.2 Section I: Risk Management History: Risk Management historically was the main objective of the insurance industry. After the World War II, large companies started to mitigate their risks by introducing Self-Insurance techniques. It was largely applied to cover adverse financial impacts consequent of events of losses or Market volatility. After 1970s, Financial Risk Management emerges as a cornerstone for multitude of companies including banks. In Fact, Stock Market prices, exchange rates, commodity prices, were their main concerns. Table 1: Milestones in the History of Risk Management[7] In 1990s Risk Management took more momentum and became a high priority matter for corporates, Board of Director have now the responsibility of oversight and monitoring policies effected by the Board Audit and Risk Management Committees. Financial Institution, after 2000s are required to implement capital reserves for risks, especially after the major defaults and the Enron bankruptcy case. Basel II (2004) issued guidelines on more robust capital requirements on banks for Credit Risk, also introduced rules on managing Operational Risk. In 2010 Basel III came as a response to the 2008 subprime crisis, with more constraints on capital requirements and new Liquidity Risk Management guidelines. 5.3 Section 2: Definitions of Risk Management: According to Wikipedia, “Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events[8] or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risk management’s objective is to assure uncertainty does not deflect the endeavor from the business goals.[9]” Financial Institutions face generally two types of Risk, Financial and Non-Financial[10] (Gleason 2000). Financial Risks are those due Market volatility (Market Risk), and those due customers’ defaults (Credit Risk). Non-Financial Risk includes, but not limited to, Operational Risk, Legal Risk, Reputational Risk, Regulatory Compliance Risk. 5.3.1 Market Risk: Market Risk is defined as the risk from adverse volatility of traded instruments and assets in a well-defined Market[11]. Market Risk can affect both banking and trading books. In the sense that it is originated from equity price risk, interest rate risk, currency risk, and commodity price risk. Market Risk is said systematic when it arises due to the general volatility of prices and overall changes in policies in the economy. When the price of a specific asset or instruments changes due to events inherent to it, it is categorized as unsystematic Risk. 5.3.2 Credit Risk “Credit risk is most simply defined as the potential that a bank borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms. The goal of credit risk management is to maximize a bank's risk-adjusted rate of return by maintaining credit risk exposure within acceptable parameters. Banks need to manage the credit risk inherent in the entire portfolio as well as the risk in individual credits or transactions. Banks should also consider the relationships between credit risk and other risks. The effective management of credit risk is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to risk management and essential to the long-term success of any banking organization.”[12] Credit Risk is the risk that counterparty will fail to meet its obligations timely and fully in accordance with the agreed terms[13]. 5.3.3 Liquidity Risk: The Principles for Sound Liquidity Risk Management and Supervision[14] (BCBS 2008) defines Liquidity as “the ability of a bank to fund increases in assets and meet obligations as they come due, without incurring unacceptable losses.” Liquidity Risk arises then from adverse circumstances that hurdles a bank to normally operate and meet its liabilities when due. Funding Liquidity Risk occurs when banks are unable to secure funds at a reasonable cost from borrowing, Asset Liquidity Risk arises when banks face difficulties to generate liquidity from sale of assets.[15] 5.3.4 Operational Risk: The BCBS Principles for the Sound Management of Operational Risk defines Operational Risk as the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events. This definition includes legal risk, but excludes strategic and reputational risk.[16] Operational Risk was for a long time out of the radar of the corporates and scholars, it was not quite understood. Power writes: “Operational risk was conceived as a composite term for a wide variety of organizational and behavioural risk issues which were traditionally excluded from formal definitions of market and credit risk. The explosion of operational risk discourse gave new structure and rationality to what had traditionally been regarded as a risk management residual and negatively described as non-financial risk.”[17] The Bank of international Settlements (BIS) have categorized Operational Risk into four causal categories[18]: · Process · Business Process (lack of proper due diligence, inadequate/problematic account reconciliation, etc.) · Business Risks (merger risk, new product risk, etc.) · Errors and Omissions (inadequate/problematic security, inadequate/problematic quality control, etc.) · Specific Liabilities (employee benefits, employer, directors and officers, etc.) · People · Employee Errors (general transaction errors, incorrect routing of transaction, etc.) · Human Resource Issues (employee unavailability, hiring/firing, etc.) · Personal Injury – Physical Injury (bodily injury, health and safety, etc.) Personal Injury – Non–Physical Injury (libel/defamation/slander, discrimination/harassment, etc.) · Wrongful Acts (fraud, trading misdeeds, etc.) · Information Technology · General Technology Problems (operational error – technology related, unauthorized use/misuse of technology, etc.) · Hardware (equipment failure, inadequate/unavailable hardware, etc.) · Security (hacking, firewall failure, external disruption, etc.) · Software (computer virus, programming bug, etc.) · Systems (system failures, system maintenance, etc.) · Telecommunications (telephone, fax, etc.) · External Events · Disasters (natural disasters, non–natural disasters, etc.) · External Misdeeds (external fraud, external money laundering, etc.) · Litigation/Regulation (capital control, regulatory change, legal change, etc.) · Relationships · Legal/Contractual (securities law violations, legal liabilities, etc.) · Negligence (gross negligence, general negligence, etc.) · Sales Discrimination (lending discrimination, client Discrimination, etc.) · Sales Related Issues (churning, sales misrepresentation, high pressure sales tactics, etc.) · Specific Omissions (failure to pay proper fees, failure to file proper report, etc.) Gene Alvares attempted a mapping exercise between the Causal Categories and Basel Risk Types (Alvares, Global Association of Risk Professionals GARP studies. 2002). Mapping illustration between the Basel Committee’s proposed operational risk event classification scheme and Zurich IC2 format. (Alvarez, 2002)[19] References Georges Dionne, Risk Management: History and Critique, March 2013 Harrington and Neihaus, 2013, Georges Dionne, Risk Management: History and Critique, March 2013 Jorion and Khoury 1996, reference cited by Tariqullah Khan Habib Ahmed: Risk Management: An Analysis Of Issues In Islamic Financial Industry, 2001, Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute Oldfield and Santomero (1997), reference cited by Tariqullah Khan Habib Ahmed: Risk Management: An Analysis Of Issues In Islamic Financial Industry, 2001, , Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute Tariqullah Khan Habib Ahmed: Risk Management: An Analysis Of Issues In Islamic Financial Industry, 2001, Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute Hubbard, Douglas (2009). The Failure of Risk Management: Why It's Broken and How to Fix It. John Wiley & Sons. (Wikipedia) Antunes, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Vicente (3 March 2015). "A Production Model for Construction: A Theoretical Framework". Buildings. 5 (1): 209–228. doi:10.3390/buildings5010209. (Wikipedia) BCBS - Principles for the Management of Credit Risk - final document, September 2000 BCBS - Principles for Sound Liquidity Risk Management and Supervision - final document, September 2008 BCBS Principles for the Sound Management of Operational Risk, 2011 Power p. 103 Cited by Johannes Gaus aus Böblingen, The Risks of Financial Risk Management, Master-Thesis, Economics of Financial Institutions European Business School, Department Corporate Management & Economics, Zeppelin University Marinoiu Ana Maria, Bucharest University of Economics, Faculty of International Business and Economics, Operational Risk In International Business: Taxonomy And Assessment Methods, Federal Reserve Bulletin, September 2003, Capital Standards for Banks: The Evolving Basel Accord BCBS, Basel II: The New Basel Capital Accord - third consultative paper April 2003 and Revised international capital framework, June 2006 Basel III: international regulatory framework for banks Sean Kenny, To What Extent were the Limitations of the Previous Basel Accords (I & II) overlooked by Basel III?, Master programme in Economic History, Lund University, School of Economics and Management, June 2011 BCBS- Pillar 2 (Supervisory Review Process), the New Basel Capital Accord, Principal 2 Basel II, Tamer Bakiciol Nicolas Cojocaru-Durand DongxuLu, December 2008 BIS, BCSB, Basel III: international regulatory framework for banks Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Basel III: International Framework for Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards and Monitoring, Dec 10, Bank for International Settlements. http://wwww.basel-ii-risk.com/basel-iii-guide-to-the-changes/ Ahmad Alharbi, Development of the Islamic Banking System, Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance June 2015, Vol. 3, No. 1 Syed Ehsan Ullah Agha, RISK MANAGEMENT IN ISLAMIC FINANCE: AN ANALYSIS FROM OBJECTIVES OF SHARI’AH PERSPECTIVE, International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Vol. 7, Issue 3 (Aug.) 2015 Specifics of Risk Management in Islamic Finance and Banking, with Emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina, E.Kozarević, M.Baraković Nurikić & N.Nuhanović, Bahar/Spring 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Çankırı Karatekin University, Journal of The Faculty of Economics, and Administrative Sciences. Ioannis Akkizidis and Sunil Kumar Khandelwal, Financial Risk Management for Islamic Banking and Finance, Palgrave Macmillan. Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (COMCEC), Risk Management in Islamic Financial Instruments, COMCEC Coordination Office, September 2014. ISLAMIC FINANCIAL SERVICES BOARD, GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INSTITUTIONS (OTHER THAN INSURANCE INSTITUTIONS) OFFERING ONLY ISLAMIC FINANCIAL SERVICES, December 2005. Nurhafiza Abdul Kader Malim PhD, Islamic Banking and Risk Management: Issues and Challenges, Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance Oct.- Dec. 2015. Hennie van Greuning Zamir Iqbal, Risk Analysis for Islamic Banks, THE WORLD BANK Washington, D.C., December 2008. Ahmad Mohamed Rahim, Operational Risks in Islamic Profit Sharing Contracts and Ways to Overcome Them, MSc in Islamic Finance, The Global University of Islamic Finance, October 2014 (http://www.inceif.org/research-bulletin/operational-risks-islamic-profit-sharing-contracts-ways-overcome/) [1] Georges Dionne, Risk Management: History and Critique, March 2013, p. 1 [2] Harrington and Neihaus, 2013, Georges Dionne, Risk Management: History and Critique, March 2013, p. 1 [3] Georges Dionne, Risk Management: History and Critique, March 2013, p. 1 [4] Jorion and Khoury 1996, p. 2, reference cited by Tariqullah Khan Habib Ahmed: Risk Management: An Analysis Of Issues In Islamic Financial Industry, 2001,p. 26, Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute [5] Oldfield and Santomero (1997), reference cited by Tariqullah Khan Habib Ahmed: Risk Management: An Analysis Of Issues In Islamic Financial Industry, 2001,p. 27, Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute [6] Tariqullah Khan Habib Ahmed: Risk Management: An Analysis Of Issues In Islamic Financial Industry, 2001,p. 28, Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute [7] Georges Dionne, Risk Management: History and Critique, March 2013, p. 6 [8] Hubbard, Douglas (2009). 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